Eltern's economic situation improved significantly in 1905 when it was connected to Haseluenne's railway system. An unmanned train stop was established in Eltern; some time later, however, it was closed down due to insufficient traffic. Nevertheless, agriculture still played a dominant role. Thus, new farmhouses were built on the Elterner Field between 1920 and 1934.
Agriculture lost its dominant position after the Second World War. In 1807 Eltern had 111 inhabitants, 1858 and 1861 135 and 137 respectively. In 1882 there were 120 inhabitants in 21 households. 10 of them were sole heirs, 3 planters and 8 Heuerleute (landless cottagers). Consequently, the whole population was still working in the agricultural sector. Due to the mechanisation of the agriculture, several farms closed down. Work was found in nearby industrial areas like Kraska (1960-62). Population figures increased due to the creation of new residential areas like the "Waldsiedlung" (meaning settlement in the forest; this area was later called Bramland). While Eltern had 193 inhabitants in 1939, this number grew to 272 in 1961 and reached 480 in 1965. Refugees and displaced persons had to be integrated into the society.
Today Eltern has 764 inhabitants and the current mayor is called Stefan Rolfers.
Extremely important was the expansion and straightening of the federal road 213 in 1963/64 because until then the street made a bend around the village. Due to the relocation of the B 213 several farms were resettled. Their owners moved to the Elterner Field. More or less at the same time (from 1959) the land consolidation took place.
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